Volume 10 Issue 2
Jan.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Zhen Zheng, Yanjing Chen, Xiaohua Deng, Suwei Yue, Hongjin Chen, Qingfei Wang. Tourmaline geochemistry and boron isotopic variations as a guide to fluid evolution in the Qiman Tagh W-Sn belt, East Kunlun, China[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2019, 10(2): 569-580. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2018.04.007
Citation: Zhen Zheng, Yanjing Chen, Xiaohua Deng, Suwei Yue, Hongjin Chen, Qingfei Wang. Tourmaline geochemistry and boron isotopic variations as a guide to fluid evolution in the Qiman Tagh W-Sn belt, East Kunlun, China[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2019, 10(2): 569-580. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2018.04.007

Tourmaline geochemistry and boron isotopic variations as a guide to fluid evolution in the Qiman Tagh W-Sn belt, East Kunlun, China

doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2018.04.007

This is a contribution from the Working Group on Mineral Deposits in Collisional Orogens (IAGOD) and has been financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB440800), China Geological Survey Bureau (No. 1212011140056).

  • Received Date: 2017-06-01
  • Rev Recd Date: 2018-03-10
  • Publish Date: 2021-01-07
  • The Qiman Tagh W-Sn belt lies in the westernmost section of the East Kunlun Orogen, NW China, and is associated with early Paleozoic monzogranites, tourmaline is present throughout this belt. In this paper we report chemical and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline from wall rocks, monzogranites, and quartz veins within the belt, for studying the evolution of ore-forming fluids. Tourmaline crystals hosted in the monzogranite and wall rocks belong to the alkali group, while those hosted in quartz veins belong to both the alkali and X-site vacancy groups. Tourmaline in the walk rocks lies within the schorl-dravite series and becomes increasingly schorlitic in the monzogranite and quartz veins. Detrital tourmaline in the wall rocks is commonly both optically and chemically zoned, with cores being enriched in Mg compared with the rims. In the Al-Fe-Mg and Ca-Fe-Mg diagrams, tourmaline from the wall rocks plots in the fields of Al-saturated and Ca-poor metapelite, and extends into the field of Li-poor granites, while those from the monzogranite and quartz veins lie within the field of Li-poor granites. Compositional substitution is best represented by the MgFe-1, Al(NaR)-1, and AlO(Fe(OH))-1 exchange vectors. A wider range of δ11B values from -11.1‰ to -7.1‰ is observed in the wall-rock tourmaline crystals, the B isotopic values combining with elemental diagrams indicate a source of metasediments without marine evaporates for the wall rocks in the Qiman Tagh belt. The δ11B values of monzogranite-hosted tourmaline range from -10.7‰ and -9.2‰, corresponding to the continental crust sediments, and indicate a possible connection between the wall rocks and the monzogranite. The overlap in δ11B values between wall rocks and monzogranite implies that a transfer of δ11B values by anataxis with little isotopic fractionation between tourmaline and melts. Tourmaline crystals from quartz veins have δ11B values between -11.0‰ and -9.6‰, combining with the elemental diagrams and geological features, thus indicating a common granite-derived source for the quartz veins and little B isotopic fractionation occurred. Tourmalinite in the wall rocks was formed by metasomatism by a granite-derived hydrothermal fluid, as confirmed by the compositional and geological features. Therefore, we propose a single B-rich sedimentary source in the Qiman Tagh belt, and little boron isotopic fractionation occurred during systematic fluid evolution from the wall rocks, through monzogranite, to quartz veins and tourmalinite.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Barth, S., 1993. Boron isotope variations in nature:a synthesis. Geologische Rundschau 82, 640-651.
    Chen, N.S., Li, X.Y., Zhang, K.X., Wang, G.C., Zhu, Y.H., Hou, G.J., Bai, Y.S., 2006.Lithological characteristics of the Baishahe formation to the South of Xiangride Town, eastern Kunlun Mountains and its age constrained from zircon PbePb dating. Geological Science and Technology Information 25, 1-7 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Chen, Y.X., Pei, X.Z., Li, R.B., Liu, Z.Q., Li, Z.C., Zhang, X.F., Chen, G.C., Liu, Z.G., Ding, S.P., Guo, J.F., 2011. Zircon U-Pb age of Xiaomiao Formation of proterozoic in the Eastern section of the East Kunlun orogenic belt. Geoscience 25, 510-521(in Chinese with English abstract).
    Couch, E.L., Grim, R.E., 1968. Boron flxation by illites. Clays and Clay Minerals 16, 249-256.
    Da Costa, I.R., Mourão, C., Récio, C., Guimarães, F., Antunes, I.M., Ramos, J.F., Barriga, F.J.A.S., Palmer, M.R., Milton, J.A., 2014. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal):genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 167, 993.
    Gao, Y.B., Li, W.Y., Li, K., Qian, B., Zhang, Z.W., Zhou, A.S., Wu, Y.S., Zhang, J.W., Guo, Z.P., Wang, Y.L., 2012. Genesis and chronology of Baiganhu-Jialesai W-Sn mineralization belt, Qimantage, east Kunlun mountain, NW China. Northwestern Geology 45, 229-241 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Gao, Y.B., Li, W.Y., Li, Z.M., Wang, J., Keiko, H., Zhang, Z.W., Geng, J.Z., 2014. Geology, Geochemistry, and genesis of tungsten-tin deposits in the Baiganhu district, northern Kunlun belt, Northwest China. Economic Geology 109, 1787-1799.
    Garba, I., 1996. Tourmalinization related to late Proterozoic-early Palaeozoic lode gold mineralization in the Bin Yauri area, Nigeria. Mineralium Deposita 31, 201-209.
    Garda, G.M., Trumbull, R.B., Beljavskis, P., Wiedenbeck, M., 2009. Boron isotope composition of tourmalinite and vein tourmalines associated with gold mineralization, Serra do Itaberaba Group, central Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil.Chemical Geology 264, 207-220.
    Guo, T.Z., Tan, S.X., Chang, G.H., Ding, Y.J., Zhang, Z.Q., 2012.40Ar/39Ar dating of the muscovite in the sericite of the Qiman Tagh ductile shear zone and its geological significance. Northwestern Geology 45, 94-101 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Harder, H., 1970. Boron content of sediments as a tool in facies analysis. Sedimentary Geology 4, 153-175.
    Harraz, H.Z., El-Sharkawy, M.F., 2001. Origin of tourmaline in the metamorphosed Sikait politic belt, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 33, 391-416.
    Hawthorne, F.C., Dirlam, D.M., 2011. Tourmaline the indicator mineral:from atomic arrangement to Viking navigation. Elements 7, 307-312.
    Hawthorne, F.C., Henry, D.J., 1999. Classification of the minerals of the tourmaline group. European Journal of Mineralogy 11, 201-215.
    Heinrich, C.A., 1990. The chemistry of hydrothermal tin (-tungsten) ore deposition.Economic Geology 85, 457-481.
    Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., 1992. Tourmaline in a low grade clastic metasedimentary rock:an example of the petrogenetic potential of tourmaline. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 112, 203-218.
    Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., 2012. Tourmaline at diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic conditions:its petrologic applicability. Lithos 154, 16-32.
    Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., 1990. Ca substitution in Li-poor aluminous tourmaline. The Canadian Mineralogist 28, 101-114.
    Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., 1996. Metamorphic tourmaline and its petrologic applications.In:Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (Eds.), Boron:Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, vol. 33, pp. 503-557.
    Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., Selverstone, J., 2002. Compositional asymmetry in replacement tourmaline:an example from the Tauern window, eastern alps.Geological Materials Research 4, 1-18.
    Henry, D.J., Guidotti, C.V., 1985. Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator mineral:an example from the staurolite-grade metapelites of NW Maine. American Mineralogist 70, 1-15.
    Hu, Y.X., Xiao, P.X., Gao, X.F., Xie, C.R., Xi, R.G., Dong, Z.C., Guo, L., Kang, L., 2010.Division and Space-time frame foundation of regional stratum in the western sector of East Kunlun and the Altun Region. Northwestern Geology 43, 152-158(in Chinese with English abstract).
    Jiang, S.Y., 2000. Boron isotope and its Geological Applications. Geological Journal of China University 6, pp. 1-16 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Jiang, S.Y., Radvanec, M., Nakamura, E., Palmer, M., Kobayashi, K., Zhao, H.X., Zhao, K.D., 2008. Chemical and boron isotopic variations of tourmaline in the Hnilec granite-related hydrothermal system, Slovakia:constraints on magmatic and metamorphic fluid evolution. Lithos 106, 1-11.
    Jilin Geological Survey, 2009. Geological Exploration Report of Kekekaerde W-Sn Deposit in the Baiganhu W-Sn District, Ruoqiang County, Xinjiang (in Chinese).
    Jilin Geological Survey, 2011. Geological Exploration Report of Bashierxi W-sn Deposit in the Baiganhu W-Sn District, Ruoqiang County, Xinjiang (in Chinese).
    Kasemann, S., Erzinger, J., Franz, G., 2000. Boron recycling in the continental crust of the central Andes from the Paleozoic to Mesozoic, NWArgentina. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 140, 328-343.
    Keren, R.,O'Connor, G.A.,1982. Effect of exchangeable iron and ionic strength on boron adsorption by montmorillonite and illite. Clays and Clay Minerals 30, 341-346.
    Konrad-Schmolke, M., Halama, R., 2014. Combined thermodynamic-geochemical modeling in metamorphic geology:boron as tracer of fluid-rock interaction.Lithos 208-209, 393-414.
    Kowalski, P.M., Wunder, B., 2018. Boron isotope fractionation among vapor-liquidssolids-melts:experiments and atomistic modeling. In:Marschall, H., Foster, G.(Eds.), Boron Isotopes-the Fifth Element. Springer International Publishing, pp. 33-69.
    Kowalski, P.M., Wunder, B., Jahn, S., 2013. Ab initio prediction of equilibrium boron isotope fractionation between minerals and aqueous fluids at high P and T.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 101, 285-301.
    Lerman, A., 1966. Boron in clays and estimation of paleosalinities. Sedimentology 6, 267-286.
    Li, D.P., Fan, J., Xiao, A.F., Zhou, X.K., Li, X.L., Du, S.X., 2002. Discovery of early siluian graptolite fossils in the Qiman Tagh group in thewestern sector of the East Kunlun.Geological Bulletin of China 21, 136-139 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Li, H.M., Shi, Y.D., Liu, Z., Wang, B.J., Wang, Z.L., Qiu, Z.P., 2006. Geological features and origin of the Baiganhu lakeW-Sn deposit in the Ruoqiang area, East Kunlun Mountains, China. Geological Bulletin of China 25, 277-281 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Li, R.S., Ji, W.H., Yang, Y.C., Yu, P.S., Zhao, Z.M., Chen, S.J., Meng, Y., Pan, X.P., Shi, B.D., Zhang, W.J., Li, X., Luo, C.Y., 2008. Geological of Kunlun Mountain and Adjacent Area. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp. 1-389 (in Chinese).
    London, D., 1999. Stability of tourmaline in peraluminous granite system:the boron cycle from anataxis to hydrothermal aureoles. European Journal of Mineralogy 11, 253-262.
    Maner, J.L., London, D., 2017. The boron isotopic evolution of the Little Three pegmatites, Ramona, CA. Chemical Geology 460, 70-83.
    Marschall, H.R., Meyer, C., Wunder, B., Ludwig, T., Heinrich, W., 2009. Experimental boron isotope fractionation between tourmaline and fluid:confirmation from in situ analyses by secondary ion mass spectrometry and from Rayleigh fractionation modelling. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 158, 675-681.
    Meyer, C., Wunder, B., Meixner, A., Romer, R.L., Heinrich, W., 2008. Boron-isotope fractionation between tourmaline and fluid:an experimental re-investigation.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 156, 259-267.
    Mlynarczyk, M.S.J., Williams-Jones, A.E., 2006. Zoned tourmaline associated with cassiterite:implications for fluid evolution and tin mineralization in the San Rafael Sn-Cu deposit, southeastern Peru. The Canadian Mineralogist 44, 347-365.
    Neiva, A.M.R., Williams, I.S., Ramos, J.M., Gomes, M.E.P., Silva, M.M.V.G., Antunes, I.M.H.R., 2009. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of Early Ordovician granodiorite and Variscan two-mica granites from the Gouveia area, central Portugal. Lithos 111, 186-202.
    Palmer, M.R., Swihart, G.H., 1996. Boron isotope geochemistry:an overview. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 33, 709-744.
    Pesquera, A., Torres-Ruiz, J., García-Casco, A., Gil-Crespo, P.P., 2013. Evaluating the controls on tourmaline formation in granitic systems:a case study on peraluminous granites from the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), Western Spain. Journal of Petrology 54, 609-634.
    Pesquera, A., Velasco, F., 1997. Mineralogy, geochemistry and geological significance of tourmaline-rich rocks from the Paleozoic Cinco Vills massif (western Pyrenees, Spain). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 129, 53-74.
    Pirajno, F., 2013. The Geology and Tectonic Settings of China's Mineral Deposits.Springer Science + Business Media Dordrecht.
    Roda-Robles, E., Pesquera, A., Gil-Crespo, P.P., Torres-Ruiz, J., 2011. Occurrence, paragenesis and compositional evolution of tourmaline from the Tormes Dome area, central Iberian zone, Spain. The Canadian Mineralogist 49, 207-224.
    Sinclair, W.D., Richardson, J.M., 1992. Quartz-tourmaline orbicules in the seagull batholith, Yukon Territory. The Canadian Mineralogist 30, 923-935.
    Slack, J.F., 1996. Tourmaline associations with hydrothermal ore deposits. In:Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (Eds.), Boron:Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry.Reviews in Mineralogy, vol. 33, pp. 559-643.
    Slack, J.F., Palmer, M.R., Stevens, B.P.J., Barnes, R.G., 1993. Origin and significance of tourmaline-rich rocks in the Broken Hills district, Australia. Economic Geology 88, 505-541.
    Taylor, J.R., Wall, V.J., 1993. Cassiterite solubility, tin speciation, and transport in a magmatic aqueous phase. Economic Geology 88, 437-460.
    Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., Selway, J.B., 2002. Tourmaline in petalite-subtype granitic pegmatites:evidence of fractionation and contamination from the Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist 40, 753-788.
    Tonarini, S., Dini, A., Pezzotta, F., Leeman, W.P., 1998. Boron isotopic compositions of zoned (schorl-elbaite) tourmaline, Mt. Capanne Li-Cs pegmatites, Elba (Italy).Eurpean Journal of Mineralogy 10, 941-952.
    Tonarini, S., Pennisi, M., Adorni-Braccesi, A., Dini, A., Ferrara, G., Gonfiantini, R., Wiedenbeck, M., Gröning, M., 2003. Intercomparison of boron isotope and concentration measurements. Part _:selection, preparation and homogeneity tests of the intercomparison materials. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research 27, 21-39.
    Torres-Ruiz, J., Pesquera, A., Gil-Crespo, P.P., Velilla, N., 2003. Origin and petrogenetic implications of tourmaline-rich rocks in the Sierra Nevada (Betic Cordillera, southeastern Spain). Chemical Geology 197, 55-86.
    Trumbull, R.B., Krienitz, M.-S., Grundmann, G., Wiedenbenc, M., 2009. Tourmaline geochemistry and δ11B variations as a guide to fluid-rock interaction in the Habachtal emerald deposit, Tauern Window, Austria. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 157, 411-427.
    Trumbull, R.B., Slack, J.F., Krienitz, M.-S., Belkin, H.E., Wiedenbeck, M., 2011. Fluid sources and metallogenesis in the Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Inaho, USA-insights from major-elements and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline.The Canadian Mineralogist 49, 225-244.
    Van Hinsberg, V.J., Henry, D.J., Dutrow, B.L., 2011. Tourmaline as a petrologic forensic mineral:a unique recorder of its geologic past. Elements 7, 327-332.
    Wang, G.C., Wang, Q.H., Jian, P., Zhu, Y.H., 2004. Zircon SHRIMP ages of Precambrian metamorphic basement rocks and their tectonic significance in the eastern Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 481-490 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Wang, G.C.,Wei, Q.R., Jia, C.X., Zhang, K.X., Li, D.W., Zhu, Y.H., Xiang, S.Y., 2007. Some ideas of precambrican geology in the East Kunlun, China. Geological Bulletin of China 26, 929-937 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Wang, X.L., Gao, X.P., Liu, Y.Q., Li, X.L., Zhou, X.K., Du, S.X., Cui, J.G., Dai, X.Y., Zeng, Z.C., 2010. Rivision of the Qiman Tagh group in west part of East Kunlun.Northwestern Geology 43, 168-178 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Williams, L.B., Hervig, R.L., Holloway, J.R., Hutcheon, I., 2001. Boron isotope geochemistry during diagenesis. Part _. Experimental determination of fractionation during illitization of smectite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 1769-1782.
    Xiao, A.F., 2005. Yaziquan silurian volcanic rocks in western Qimantahe mountain of eastern Kunlun. Shaanxi Geology 23, 50-60 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Xu, Z.Q., Yang, J.S., Li, W.C., Li, H.Q., Cai, Z.H., Yan, Z., Ma, C.Q., 2013. Paleo-Tethys system and accretionary orogen in the Tibet Plateau. Acta Petrologica Sinica 29, 1847-1860 (in Chinese with English abstract).
    Yang, J.S., Robinson, P.T., Jiang, C.F., Xu, Z.Q., 1996. Ophiolites of the Kunlun Mountains, China and their tectonic implications. Tectonophysics 258, 215-231.
    Yang, S.Y., Jiang, S.Y., 2012. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline in the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex, Southeast China:evidence for boron mobilization and infiltration during magmatic-hydrothermal processes.Chemical Geology 312-313, 177-189.
    Yang, S.Y., Jiang, S.Y., Zhao, K.D., Dai, B.Z., Yang, T., 2015. Tourmaline as a recorder of magmatic-hydrothermal evolution:an in situ major and trace element analysis of tourmaline from the Qitianling batholith, South China. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 170, 42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-015-1195-7.
    Yavuz, F., Fuchs, Y., Karakaya, N., Karakaya, M.C., 2008. Chemical composition of tourmaline from the Asarcik Pb-Zn-Cu±U deposit, Sebinkarahisar, Turkey.Mineralogy and Petrology 94, 195-208.
    Yu, W.J., Xue, L.M., 1986. Remarks on the geological structure characteristics of Qiman Tagh. Northwestern Geology 3, 17-23 (in Chinese).
    Yücel-Öztürk, Y., Helvacı, C., Palmer, M.R., Ersoy, E.Y., Freslon, N., 2015. Origin and significance of tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing rocks of Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey. Lithos 218-219, 22-36.
    Zheng, Z., Chen, Y.J., Deng, X.H., Yue, S.W., Chen, H.J., Wang, Q.F., 2018. Origin of the Bashierxi monzogranite, Qiman Tagh, East Kunlun orogen, NW China:a magmatic response to the evolution of the proto-Tethys ocean. Lithos 296-299, 181-194.
    Zheng, Z., Deng, X.H., Chen, H.J., Yue, S.W., Dong, L.H., Qu, X., Chen, Y.J., 2016. Fluid sources and metallogenesis in the Baiganhu W-Sn deposit, East Kunlun, NW China:insights from chemical and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline.Ore Geology Reviews 72, 1129-1142.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (78) PDF downloads(2) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint