Volume 13 Issue 4
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Peng Zhang, Linlin Kou, Yan Zhao, Deming Sha. Genesis of the Maoling gold deposit in the Liaodong Peninsula: Constraints from a combined fluid inclusion, C-H-O-S-Pb-He-Ar isotopic and geochronological studies[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(4): 101379. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101379
Citation: Peng Zhang, Linlin Kou, Yan Zhao, Deming Sha. Genesis of the Maoling gold deposit in the Liaodong Peninsula: Constraints from a combined fluid inclusion, C-H-O-S-Pb-He-Ar isotopic and geochronological studies[J]. Geoscience Frontiers, 2022, 13(4): 101379. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101379

Genesis of the Maoling gold deposit in the Liaodong Peninsula: Constraints from a combined fluid inclusion, C-H-O-S-Pb-He-Ar isotopic and geochronological studies

doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2022.101379

This research was funded by the NSF of China (No. 42072104

41502093), the National Key R&D Plan of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFC0600108, 2018YFC0603804). We thank Associate Editor, Dr. Christopher Spencer and the reviewers for constructive comments to improve the quality of this paper.

  • Received Date: 2021-09-16
  • Accepted Date: 2022-03-11
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-01-24
  • Publish Date: 2022-03-14
  • The large tonnage Maoling gold deposit (25 t @ 3.2 g/t) is located in the southwest Liaodong Peninsula, North China Craton. The deposit is hosted in the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. Four stages of mineralization were identified in the deposit: (stage I) quartz-arsenopyrite ±pyrite, (stage II) quartz-gold- arsenopyrite-pyrrhotite, (stage III) quartz-gold- polymetallic sulfide, and (stage IV) quartz-calcite-pyrrhotite. In this paper, we present fluid inclusion, C-H-O-S-Pb-He-Ar isotope data, zircon U-Pb, and gold-bearing sulfide (i.e. arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite) Rb-Sr age of the Maoling gold deposit to constrain its genesis and ore-forming mechanism. Three types of fluid inclusions were distinguished in quartz-bearing veins, including liquid-rich two-phase (WL type), gas-rich two-phase (GL type), and daughter mineral-bearing fluid inclusions (S type). Fluid inclusions data show that the homogenization at temperatures 197 to 372 ℃ for stage I, 126 to 319 ℃ for stage II, 119 to 189 ℃ for stage III, and 115 to 183 ℃ for stage IV, with corresponding salinities of 3.7 to 22.6 wt.%, 4.7 to 23.2 wt.%, 5.3 to 23.2 wt.%, and 1.7 to 14.9 wt.% NaCl equiv., respectively. Fluid boiling was the critical factor controlling the gold and associated sulfide precipitation at Maoling. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopic analyses for quartz yielded δ18O = -5.0‰ to 9.8‰ and δ D = -133.5‰ to -77.0‰. Carbon stable isotopic analyses for calcite and ankerite yielded δ13C = -2.3‰ to -1.2‰ and O = 7.9‰ to 14.1‰. The C-H-O isotope data show that the ore-forming fluids were originated from magmatic water with meteoric water input during mineralization. Hydrothermal inclusions in arsenopyrite have 3He/4He ratios of 0.002 Ra to 0.054 Ra, and 40Ar/36Ar rations of 1225 to 3930, indicating that the ore-forming fluids were dominantly derived from crustal sources almost no mantle input. Sulfur isotopic values of Maoling fine-grained granite range from 6.‰1 to 9.8‰, with a mean of 7.7‰, δ34S values of arsenopyrite from the mineralized phyllite (host rock) range from 8.9‰ to 10.6‰, with a mean of 10.0‰, by contrast, δ34S values of sulfides from ore vary between 4.3‰ and 10.6‰, with a mean of 6.8‰, suggesting that sulfur was mainly originated from both the host rock and magma. Lead radioactiveisotopic analyses for sulfides yielded 206Pb/204Pb = 15.830–17.103, 207Pb/204Pb = 13.397–15.548, 208Pb/204Pb = 35.478–36.683, and for Maoling fine-grained granite yielded 206Pb/204Pb = 18.757–19.053, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.596–15.612, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.184–39.309, also suggesting that the ore-forming materials were mainly originated from the host rocks and magma. Zircon U-Pb dating demonstrates that the Maoling fine-grained granite was emplaced at 192.7 ±1.8 Ma, and the host rock (mineralized phyllite) was emplaced at some time after 2065.0 ±27.0 Ma. Arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite give Rb–Sr isochron age of 188.7 ±4.5 Ma, indicating that both magmatism and mineralization occurred during the Early Jurassic. Geochronological and geochemical data, together with the regional geological history, indicate that Early Jurassic magmatism and mineralization of the Maoling gold deposit occurred during the subducting Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia, and the Maoling gold deposit is of the intrusion-related gold deposit type.
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